Many people wonder why occupational therapy is used for treating autism. Read this blog to find out!
What are your occupations?
Every day, you do meaningful activities. You play games, garden, make meals and paint. They are an integral parts of our lives. Above all they allow us to access the best parts of our life and make it meaningful for us. OT help with your professional and personal concerns if you are unable to perform daily tasks due to injury, illness, or disability.
Offer solutions to problems that arise from social and environmental factors.
Enhanced participation in communities and life.
Ultimately, help us live the life that we desire.
What is Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)?
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder. It affects about 500,000 people around the world. Autism diagnosis most often occurs in childhood. Moreover, Autism Speaks Canada predicts that 1 in 42 boys and 1 in of 189 girls will be autistic.
ASD can impact every area of a person’s life and each case is unique. Occupation performance refers to the ability to do daily activities, such as self-care and daily living. It also includes education, leisure and recreation for children. As well as their ability to communicate and socially engage.
What are the goals of occupational therapy?
OT’s main goal is to help clients achieve their highest level of independence. In other words, it is important to consider their personal goals, motivations and interests.
Above all OTs should:
Encourage participation in daily life.
Develop intervention plans and assess the abilities of the individual.
Assist children in achieving their developmental goals.
Encourage learning through their understanding of sensorimotor processing.
Fine/gross motor skills development and task analysis.
Recommend changes or accommodations to activities and environments.
Teach vocational skills and explore independent living options.
Assist clients in achieving independence.
Support clients and families with education, consultation, and advocacy.
Support clients in building intimate relationships through education about relationships and sexuality.
Participate in the inter-professional team (speech pathologists, behaviour analysts, physicians, early interventionists, social workers and educators).
How is occupational therapy used in treating autism?
Occupational therapists use their skills to improve sensory processing, emotional regulation and fine/gross motor development. Occupational therapy is a holistic approach that offers a unique perspective. They hold advanced degrees and have received a lot of training in the field. Moreover, they are highly skilled in doing assessments and in providing intervention. Occupational therapy interventions require input from family, educators, and caregivers. People transition from one setting into another with the help of occupational therapists. In other words, transitions include from home to daycare, from daycare to school, and from school to society. Occupational therapists provide support to families through education and consultation.
Where can occupational therapists work?
Occupational therapists can be found working alongside health care professionals in many settings. That is to say these can include schools, long-term care facilities, hospitals, and community clinics. OTs also work in support services, family homes and on client health teams. Other organizations may be involved in the occupational therapy’s work, such as government policy-makers, community agencies, or care professionals.
Occupational Therapy at Side by Side
In summary, OTs play an important role on many of our client teams. Occupational Therapists can do direct treatment or consult to our ABA Therapy teams. If you’d like to discuss how we can use occupational therapy in your child’s program call Side by Side Therapy today.
Many new parents aren’t confident in their child’s milestone mastery. They often wonder ‘Should my toddler see a speech therapist?’ In their first two years, children accomplish many things. They learn how to walk, crawl, talk and socialize in just a few months. The expected age range for most skills that your child will learn is usually around 6-10 months. Most babies crawl between 6-10 months old, while the majority of children are able to walk by age 15.
Speech milestones are the same. Your child should be able to say their first words by the age of 1, and should know 20 words by the age of 18 months. Don’t panic if your child falls short of these goals. You may find your child slow to develop their language skills. A speech therapist could help.
Side by Side Therapy can help your child if they are having difficulties with their development. Our therapists are warm and inviting, and we can help your child develop the skills necessary to live a happy and independent life. We have paediatric occupational therapists, speech therapists and behaviour analysts to help your child learn the skills necessary to face whatever challenges lie ahead.
Speech and Language
Speech therapy can be used to help your child improve their language and speech skills. While speech and language are closely related, they are quite different. Children might have difficulties with speaking, with language, with fluency or with any combination of the three.
Speech includes articulation, voice and fluency. Effective verbal skills require the integration of all three components. Articulation refers to the movement of our lips, tongue, mouth, and mouth in order to produce certain sounds. Children who have difficulty with articulation might have difficulties with the “r” and “th” sounds. Voice refers to the use of breath and vocal folds in order to produce sounds. Your child does not need to speak loudly, but they should be able and able to communicate clearly at a consistent volume. Fluency refers to the ability to speak in a rhythmic manner.
Language is the use of words and how they are used to communicate ideas and achieve our goals. It can be understood, spoken, read, and written. One or more of the skills that a child may struggle with is language.
What does the word mean? Some words can have multiple meanings. A bright object in the sky, or someone famous can both be considered “star”.
How to create new words.We can use the words “friend”, “friendly”, or “unfriendly” to mean different things.
How to combine words.In English, we use the phrase “Peg walked to new store” rather than “Peg walk new store”.
What to say at different times.We might say, for example, “Would your mind moving your feet?” If the person doesn’t move, we may say “Get off my foot!”
A receptive language disorder is when you have difficulty understanding the meaning of others’ words. Expressive language disorders are when you have trouble sharing your thoughts, ideas and feelings.
Fluency refers to continuity, smoothness, rate and effort. In other words, how easily a person is able to retrieve words and use them. Fluency disorders like stuttering and cluttering are common in children with autism.
Should my toddler see a speech therapist?
Each child learns at their own pace and there are many milestones to reach. If your child shows any of these signs, then it might be time to consider speech therapy.
Number of words
Your 18-month-old child will use less than 20 words and 50 words by the age of 2.
Only a few sounds are required to make all words sound right. This is due to articulation.
Most children can understand 300 words by age 2. Speech therapy may be necessary if your child is having trouble understanding simple sentences such as “Get your coat!”
Your child speaks infrequently and struggles to use language socially. Sharing and turn taking are also important social skills that are related to speech and language development
If you’re looking for services for your child, please contact Side by Side Therapy to arrange a no-charge consultation to discuss your child’s development and needs.
Many parents of children recently diagnosed with autism ask themselves “What kind of therapy does a child with autism need?” This blog will cover therapy options and some guidelines for what to avoid when picking a therapy model and provider.
What kind of therapy does a child with autism need?
There are many evidence based therapies for autistic children. Applied Behaviour Analysis, Speech-Language Pathology and Occupational Therapy are 3 options. Each child is different and will need an individualized therapy program. In any case, therapy should begin with an assessment that is updated regularly. Each kind of therapy will have it’s own way of setting goals but the goals should be specific to the child. The type of therapy that a child needs will likely change as they grow and learn.
ABA is a scientific discipline that focuses on analysis and evaluation of social and environmental shifts to produce meaningful changes in a person’s life. One of the main ideas behind ABA is the identification of functional relationships. In other words, functional relationships are the correlation between the person’s environment and their behaviour.
ABA can be used to both teach new skills and to reduce challenging behaviours. In fact, it is very important to do both of these things when implementing ABA. When a behaviour is reduced, it needs to be replaced with an alternative that meets the same need or serves the same function. You can read more about the functions of behaviour in this post.
ABA programs can be Comprehensive (more than 20 hours per week) or Focused (between 5 and 15 hours per week). The intensity of your child’s ABA program will depend on a number of factors (age, needs, challenging behaviours, other programs or therapies etc.).
ABA can be a bit like your family doctor. ABA has lots of strategies and techniques to help with most areas of need (behaviour, communication, social skills, motor skills etc), but there are times when a specialist is required – like a speech-language pathologist or an occupational therapist.
Speech therapy or SLP focuses on a number of areas: communication, language, pragmatics (or social skills) and feeding/swallowing. Speech therapy is a very popular therapy for autism. Your child’s SLP will do an assessment to determine where your child is in terms of skills and what needs to be targeted and taught. Sometimes the SLP will do a standardized assessment (where the child’s performance is measured against other same aged peers). Other times the assessment is informal. Sessions will usually take place for an hour or two each week.
OT can be an incredibly effective therapy for autism. The OT will look at a number of domains (or areas) when they’re assessing the child. Some examples are: motor skills, sensory integration skills, self-help/adaptive skills, even academics. OT sessions can happen anywhere: at home, at a clinic, in school even at the park or grocery store. It’s most important that the OT is able to see the child in their natural environments in order to give the best suggestions and be the most effective. Similar to Speech, OT sessions are usually an hour or two per week.
What is an interdisciplinary team in autism therapy?
Interdisciplinary teams happen when clinicians from different disciplines work together to achieve the child’s goals. For example, the OT would give strategies and set goals around a child’s sensory needs while the SLP guides the child’s language program. Both the sensory goals and the communication goals will be carried out by the ABA team, as well! Interdisciplinary teams are the best kind of therapy for a child with autism.
There are lots of decisions to be made when you’re picking a therapy for your autistic child. Let Side by Side Therapy help you understand your options and what services are available.
There is a lot of hype around early intervention in autism treatment. However, this hype can be very confusing. This deep dive into early intervention will help you understand the goal, how and where to access it, why it’s important and more.
What is early intervention in autism treatment?
Intervention or therapy that happens before a child enters school. Parents and caregivers work with therapists to learn skills and strategies that will help their child. Services can take many forms (in home, in daycare, in clinic). Early intervention can be delivered by a number of different professionals (speech therapists, occupational therapists, behaviour analysts, early childhood educators).
What are the different kinds of early intervention in autism treatment?
There are a number of different approaches to take that will be helpful for an autistic child – or a child who is showing red flags for autism. The approach that you take will depend on the professional that you work with. Some of the options are: a Board Certified Behaviour Analyst, a Speech-Language Pathologist, an Occupational Therapist, and an Early Childhood Educator.
If you choose a Board Certified Behaviour Analyst or Speech-Language Pathologist, you’ll potentially be using the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM). This model blends naturalistic teaching with behavioural concepts. It is a play based model that shares control between the child and the therapist. ESDM is very flexible in where it’s delivered. Some examples of therapy settings are: the child’s home, their daycare or a clinic. The Early Start Denver Model is based on a curriculum checklist that tracks a child’s skills based on typical development. From this, the therapist makes decisions about what skills should be the target of therapy.
If you live in Ontario, your child may be eligible for provincially funded Early Intervention. You can self-refer or have a professional you’re working with make the referral for you. However, the program names vary by region, so make sure you’re accessing everything that’s available.
What can we expect from early intervention?
Whenever you begin a new intervention it’s important to set goals. Likewise, when you begin an early intervention in autism treatment program you should determine what outcomes are realistic and possible for your child. As previously discussed, there is no cure for autism. The goal of early intervention should be to change the developmental trajectory of the child. If the child does not receive any intervention their developmental trajectory won’t change. With some intervention, the child’s development will more closely align with typically developing peers.
Your goal should be for the child to learn as many skills as possible. Communication, self-help/independence and play skills are all critical for very early learners. These domains should be the focus of intervention.
Does your child need to have a diagnosis to begin early intervention?
Beginning early intervention with your child as soon as you notice red flags is key. There is a lot to be learned for both the child and the caregivers. Waitlists for assessment and then treatment can be long. If you have an opportunity to begin therapy take it!
Each child has potential. Having early intervention for autism will only benefit your child. Reach out to us if you’d like to discuss your child’s early intervention program.
Autoclitics are a complex verbal operant. They function to modify or give further detail about the meaning of the other verbal operants in a sentence. There are 4 types: descriptive, qualifying, quantifying and relational. If you’d like to read more about the different types of autoclitics check out this website. Autoclitics give information about the other parts of the sentence. For example in the sentence “I think that it’s going to snow tomorrow.”, the phrase ‘I think’ is an autoclitic because it refers to the certainty with which it might snow tomorrow.
How Do We Teach Autoclitics?
Once the other verbal operants have been acquired and are consistently being used appropriately, it might be appropriate to teach this new verbal operant. The research is still out on the best way to teach them. What we do know is that it’s important not to teach them too early. Learners need to have very robust mand and tact repertoires before we begin introducing autoclitics. One strategy to teach them is to establish parity. That means to model appropriate use of autoclitics and their meanings. One way to avoid rote responding is to avoid teaching carrier phrases (e.g.: “I want”, “I see”, “I hear” etc). By teaching multiple component mands the child will be better equipped to use autoclitics.
How Long Will It Take To Learn To Use This Verbal Operant?
Each learner has a their own pace. It’s not possible to predict how long it will take a learner to master a skill. However, it is clear that with solid foundational skills and lots of practice it is possible to master most skills.
Why Do We Teach Autoclitics?
Understanding this type of verbal operant and using it correctly will enhance a learner’s ability to communicate. By understanding the speaker’s meaning more clearly they will be better positioned to respond to mands and tacts. An ability to use autoclitics in a learner’s speech allows them to be more clearly understood and helps others to act on their mands and tacts.
Autistic children are often picky eaters. There are many reasons that this happens. Once you’ve figured out the reason your child is picky you can use these picky eating strategies to help them overcome their pickiness. Recent research has shown that 70% of autistic children have unusual eating behaviours.
Reasons for picky eating
Many children struggle with texture, flavours and a need for sameness that can make eating a variety of foods tricky. Muscle weakness in the mouth or difficulty with sensory experiences can also impact the foods that the child will tolerate.
Try these top 5 picky eating strategies:
Allow your child to tolerate the food being around before expecting them to eat it. Try putting just a single grape on their plate or a piece of cheese without any expectation that they will eat it. The goal is to have them tolerate it.
Once your child is able to tolerate the new food, you want to gradually shape the way they’re engaging with it. For example, they might start by simply touching the food, then smelling it, then bringing it to their lips, then licking, then chewing and lastly swallowing.
3. Give choices
This is one of the best picky eating strategies! Giving your child choice and control will help them feel empowered to overcome their picky eater habits. Examples of choices you could give include: how many bites of the target food the child will have, how the target food will be prepared or who will feed the bites (the child or the adult).
4. Use Positive Reinforcement
When it comes to picky eating, it’s REALLY IMPORTANT to use positive reinforcement to encourage your child. Remember it’s not bribery if you state the expectation first and the outcome second. Think “Have three bites then we’ll watch YouTube” vs “Wanna watch YouTube? Have three bites!”
5. Don’t get into a power struggle
Eating is one of the only things your child has actual control over. There is no safe way to force your child to eat, so if they’re not willing to, it’s not going to happen. By keeping the entire experience positive and not letting it fall into a power struggle you’re helping your child to feel empowered and in control.
Who can help?
Like most challenges, an interdisciplinary approach is often the most effective. Picky eating can be addressed by ABA, Speech or Occupational Therapy. Also, before you begin trying to address your child’s picky eating, make sure to consult your child’s physician to rule out anything medical that might be going on.
In last week’s post we discussed that some parents are searching for a cure for autism. This week we’ll be looking at IF there should even be a cure.
Should we be looking for a cure for autism?
I think that thinking autism needs to be cured is an outdated philosophy. This idea is perpetuated by the belief that we need to all be the same. There is wonderful beauty in difference, but we must learn to look for that beauty.
What is neurodiversity?
Neurodiversity refers to the idea that differences in how brains work are not deficits but rather just differences. Different diagnoses fall under the neurodivergent umbrella. Some examples are: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Autism Spectrum Disorder and Sensory Processing Disorder. Neurodiversity accepts the person’s differences instead of pathologizing them.
If autism doesn’t need a cure, why do therapy at all?
There are some behaviours that are harmful to the person or their environment. If we believe that all children deserve a safe and fulfilling life, then we should do our best to help them achieve this. One of the core features of autism is difficulty with communication. Each child should have a reliable way of communicating their needs. We must do what we can to empower them to communicate in any way they can. This might look like vocal speech for some children or sign language for others. When we accept the child’s neurodiversity we open up our beliefs about how they should ‘be’. By broadening our beliefs, we’re making the world more accessible to them.
One time that it is important to intervene is if the child in engaging in dangerous behaviours. Behaviours such as aggression, self-injury and property destruction can all have very serious outcomes. The best intervention for these behaviours is to do a functional analysis and determine the function of the challenging behaviour. Once the function has been determined, a replacement behaviour can be chosen and taught.
Autism doesn’t need a cure but our goal should be to improve the child’s quality of life. What that looks like will be different for each person.
“How long until they’re like other kids their age?”
Each week I speak with 10 or so parents, most of who have newly diagnosed autistic children.
These are questions that many parents ask. It’s so difficult to ask these questions and it’s equally difficult to answer them. I am always honest when I answer. I tell them that I believe that each child can make change and learn new skills but that there is no cure for autism. It’s not for me to say how ‘normal’ they will become. I try to stress to these parents that their child has so much potential and with the right mix of learning opportunities they will grow into incredible little humans.
Taking the expectation of being ‘normal’ off the table is a relief for some parents. Others aren’t ready to hear my message. They’re still grieving the loss of the child they thought they’d have. One of the most difficult things for people to handle is uncertainty. Humans are hardwired to have a plan or at least a destination. We dream of the future. When your child is diagnosed with a special need your journey takes a turn. There is a wonderful poem that conveys this message so beautifully. It’s called ‘Welcome to Holland’ and it was written by Emily Perl Kingsley in 1987.
(I need to say that no one poem or piece of writing will perfectly sum up the experience of the entire special needs parenting population. This poem should be taken for what it is, one woman’s perspective, at one point in her life. Some people will identify with it and others will not.)
What Should Parents Do?
There are a number of evidence based treatments for autism. Research the options that are available in your area and decide which aligns with your beliefs and goals. Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) has the most research backing it’s effectiveness for autistic children. There is also Speech Therapy that can be essential for autistic kids as well as Occupational Therapy. There is a lot of overlap between the disciplines. Sometimes your child’s needs can be addressed by the ABA team alone, but sometimes the expertise of a specialist is required. Any therapy team you work with should be open to collaboration with other disciplines that provide evidence based therapy.
Alternative Cures For Autism
As with any issue that affects a group of people, there will always be bad actors who try to dupe vulnerable people. I always caution my clients against spending resources on non evidence based interventions. Resources can be money, time and energy. Very few people have unlimited resources. When you devote resources to one treatment, automatically you’re taking resources away from the others. You want to ensure that you’re putting your resources where you’ll get the most benefit. Some examples of non evidence based interventions are: biomedical interventions (chelation therapy, autism diets, supplements) or other treatments like swimming with dolphins or hyperbaric oxygen chambers. While these treatments may have many glowing reviews look for peer-reviewed, double blind controlled studies to use as your base of information when determining if something is evidence based.
This post will describe the elements you need to consider when you choose an ABA provider for your child.
As soon as you get an Autism diagnosis the first place you turn is likely Google. When you’re reading you find again and again that Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) is the most recommended therapy. If you live in a bigger city, you’ve got many options to choose from – but how do you choose an ABA provider?
Here are 5 things to consider when you choose an ABA provider:
Home or centre based?
There are many benefits to both home and centre based programs. What you need to decide is: which will benefit your child and be most manageable in your life?
In home based programs, the clinicians come to your house for each therapy appointment. Generally, a responsible adult has to be home with the child and clinician during sessions. You can see what the clinician is doing and how they’re teaching your child. You can participate in therapy sessions. Depending on the age and goals of the child, the clinicians might need a desk or table that’s free from distractions. Home based programs typically focus on using the toys and materials you have in your home to do the programming. This is a great strategy because it will allow you to continue the interventions when the therapist leaves.
Clinic based programs allow you to drop your child off and get things done while they’re in therapy. Your child will have access to a lot of novel toys and games. There will likely be peers around for social skills programming and they will hopefully learn to be a bit independent as they’re away from you and the ‘safety’ of home. Clinic based therapy sessions can often mimic school more closely than home based sessions can.
Credentials and Supervision
In Ontario, behaviour analysis is not a regulated profession. The title ‘Behaviour Analyst’ is not protected like psychologist or social worker. Anyone can say they’re a behaviour analyst. That’s a terrifying thought.
There is a certification board that credentials Behaviour Analysts. It’s called the Behavior Analyst Certification Board. To become a Board Certified Behaviour Analyst (BCBA) the candidate must have completed an approved graduate degree, completed 2000 hours of supervised work and passed a board exam. To utilize provincial funding for evidence based behavioural services (aka: ABA!) the program must be overseen by a BCBA.
It is vital when you choose an ABA provider that there is a BCBA on the team who will ACTUALLY SPEND TIME WITH YOUR CHILD. It is not enough to have a BCBA who simply signs off on the reports. They should spend a minimum of 2 hours each month supervising and monitoring your child’s progress. The BCBA also trains the front line staff on the interventions.
Some agencies employ Senior Therapists to take over some of the supervision of the BCBA. Often, senior therapists are in training to become BCBAs. This is totally okay, as long as the BCBA remains involved. At Side by Side Therapy, we do 10% supervision (for every 10 hours of ABA a client has they will have 1 hour of supervision). That’s a reasonable standard to look for when you choose an ABA provider.
Reviews and Recommendations
Rely on word of mouth. Other families have walked your path and can often be reliable sources of information when you choose an ABA provider. Most businesses have Google reviews that you can read. Also, there are many support groups on Facebook or other social media platforms that can provide recommendations for ABA providers in your area. You can also ask for references when you’ve narrowed down your search to a few providers.
Parent or caregiver involvement
Instructing parents not to participate in therapy is a huge red flag. There is no reason that you should not be in the room or able to watch what’s happening (whether in a home or centre based program).
Parent training is vital to a child’s success. You must learn the strategies and techniques that will be most effective for your child. One of the best ways to learn is called Behavioural Skills Training (BST). There are 4 steps in BST: instruction, modelling, rehearsal and feedback. You need to practice the skills with the clinician there to provide feedback in order to learn them.
You should also have an equal voice in the direction of the programming and how the programs are chosen. Each ABA program is ABA is individualized to each client so it is important that your family’s goals and values are taken into account when creating the programming. The goal development should be guided by two things: the curriculum assessment and your input.
While ABA is the most evidence based intervention for Autism, there is definitely an important role for the other disciplines to play in your child’s autism therapy. Speech-Language Pathology, Occupational Therapy, Recreation Therapy and respite all bring valuable insights and skills to the team.
Bringing an excellent team together with clinicians from multiple agencies is possible, but it is WAY easier to have everything under one roof. Choosing an ABA provider that is open to collaboration with other disciplines is super important.
Questions to ask when choosing an ABA provider
What does a typical session look like?
How do you measure success?
How frequently are revisions made to the programming?
Who does parent training? How often is it done?
What is your philosophy on punishment?
What training do the instructor therapists have?
How many years have you been a BCBA?
Call or email Side by Side Therapy today to schedule a no charge/no obligation consultation to learn about our ABA program or for advice on how to choose an ABA provider.
Each child develops at their own pace. However, there are general guidelines, called milestones, that are used in monitoring if your child is progressing. When a child doesn’t meet their milestones, it can be a red flag for autism. Red flags don’t necessarily mean your child will be diagnosed, but they are considered when determining if further assessment is needed.
Red flags for autism are divided into 3 categories. These categories align with the 3 diagnostic domains for autism: language, social skills and repetitive and stereotypic behaviours.
8 Red Flags for Autism
No words by 18 months or no two-word combinations by 24 months
Most children will have 10 words by the time they’re 18 months old. These words might not be complete but will be easy to understand and consistent. By 24 months many children are using two-word combinations. These combinations are often a name + item to make a request (e.g.: “Julia Milk”, “Daddy bed” etc.)
No pointing or use of gestures
Pointing is a very important skill. It allows a child to share their thoughts and interests in a non-verbal way. Most children point with their whole hand at first (reaching) but will eventually begin to extend their index finger to point. Likewise, gestures allow us to understand a child’s meaning without spoken language.
Inconsistent responding to name
By about a year old, your child should be consistently looking when you call their name. Responding to their name demonstrates that the child is able to divide their attention from what they’re doing when they hear a specific auditory cue.
Loss of previously mastered language skills
One of the biggest red flags for autism is a regression in language skills. Regression is when a child has mastered a skill but is then unable to demonstrate the same skill. Many parents of children with autism describe their child’s language development as typical until around 2 years of age, when the child lost the words, comprehension, pointing and gestures they were using.
Inconsistent eye contact
Many children with autism do not make eye contact naturally. In fact, adults with autism have said that eye contact can be painful or anxiety provoking. This goes beyond shyness.
Lack of joint attention
One of the red flags for autism is the inability to show joint attention. Joint attention happens when a child and their communication partner use gaze and gestures to divide their attention between a person and an interesting object or event.
Stereotypic or Repetitive Behaviours
Unusual or repetitive behaviours with their hands or other body parts
One of the red flags for autism is moving hands and the body in general in unusual ways. Some children will wave their fingers near their eyes, flap their hands, rock their body or walk on their toes.
Preoccupation or unusual interests
Another red flag for autism is intense preoccupation with non-toy items. Some children become very attached to random objects (a spoon, a block, a piece of clothing) and will become upset if it is removed.
What to do if you notice red flags for autism in your child
While none of these red flags for autism are enough to get a diagnosis on their own, it is important to notice them. When a child’s displaying a combination or stops making gains make an appointment with your paediatrician for advice and potential referrals.
Many parents are unsure of where to turn or what steps to follow to have their child assessed for autism. They simply don’t know where to start to get an autism diagnosis.
Do you have concerns about your child’s development?
Have you brought them up to your child’s physician?
Are you wondering what the process is to get an autism diagnosis in Ontario?
At your child’s 18 and 24 month check-ups the doctor should be screening your child for autism. They’re likely using a tool called the M-CHAT-R (Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers – Revised). The M-CHAT-R is 20 questions about your child’s behaviour. No screening tools catch EVERY child so even if your child passes the M-CHAT-R, you can still request the doctor make a referral to a specialist for further testing.
To diagnose autism, the person will use formal assessment tools and their clinical judgement. There isn’t a blood test or a scan that you can do that will show autism. Diagnosticians need to have a lot of training and experience identifying autism.
Paths to an autism diagnosis
There are three ways to get an autism diagnosis in Ontario.
A family physician, a child’s paediatrician, a developmental paediatrician, a neurologist or a psychiatrist can all diagnose autism. OHIP pays for this assessment and it will not cost you anything. If your doctor is not able to reliably make the diagnosis, they would refer you to someone with more experience and training. Many physicians do not give a detailed report of the child’s level of functioning but will simply write a diagnosis letter. However, as with all OHIP services, there could be a wait to be assessed, especially if you need a referral.
A diagnostic hub:
There are 5 diagnostic hubs in the province. The hubs use a multi-disciplinary approach and perform standardized test. Specifically, there is usually a psychologist, an occupational therapist, a speech-language pathologist and a behaviour analyst on the diagnostic team. They will interview you and interact with your child for a few hours, usually over a few appointments. The provincial government pays for the assessment if it’s done at a hub. Nonetheless, the wait for an appointment can be OVER A YEAR. After the assessment you will receive a written report, describing your child’s behaviour and current level of functioning. Usually, the hub will have you come in for a summary meeting to discuss the findings and talk about next steps and referrals. The hub will give you a list of many resources in your community where you can turn for help.
A private assessment:
Some families choose to use a psychologist to provide the assessment and diagnosis. In fact, Autism testing can cost between $3000 and $5000. The psychologist will interview you and will do standardized tests with your child. Many psychologists use a test called the ADOS (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule). Often, psychologists recommend that parents not be in the room during testing. It can be very difficult for parents to watch. This is because your natural instinct is to help your child, but the point of the testing is to determine how your child behaves without assistance. Generally, the full assessment takes place over 3 or 4 visits. The first visit is a parent interview. The second and third are the testing with the child. The last appointment is usually the review of the findings and referrals.
Do you need an autism diagnosis to start treatment?
No! Every child who is not meeting their milestones would benefit from early intervention. Accessing Focused ABA , S-LP or OT services would benefit your child, especially while you’re waiting for a diagnostic assessment.
The signs of autism can become noticeable around the age of 18 months. Despite this, on average, autistic children receive their diagnosis at age 4 or 5. The delay is often deliberate, hoping the child will grow out of his/her condition, or to avoid labels, such as “autistic”. Getting an early autism diagnosis for your child will only benefit them.
Unfortunately, the delay in the diagnosis equals lost years of intervention. No child recovers on his/her own from autism. It takes a lot of effort, therapy and a transdisciplinary approach to enhance the quality of life for an autistic child. The earlier the diagnosis, the more time that child will have to reach their full potential.
Taking advantage of the brain’s neuroplasticity
The human brain possesses an incredible ability called neuroplasticity. Basically, neuroplasticity refers to our brain’s ability to adapt and change. The brain can learn and grow to overcome challenges. If a specific part of the brain is damaged or not working correctly, it can develop ways to work around the deficits. Autistic children need to start therapy as early as possible and take advantage of this ability in our brains. The older the child, the more difficult it will be for their brain to change and adapt.
To understand how beneficial early diagnosis in autism is, try not to think of the brain as a static organ. The complex organ is more flexible than we might think, adapting over time and compensating for lost functions. Regular therapeutic interventions, like ABA therapy, can help the autistic child’s brain build new pathways.
Early diagnosis, also beneficial for parents
Parents are usually the first to notice that their child isn’t developing as expected. Getting an early autism diagnosis can relieve distress and help parents focus on next steps. They can seek early intervention, form a support network and they can access several benefits, such as the Registered Disability Savings Program.
Taking your child to a doctor for an assessment is the first step to getting them help. Under the guidance of autism specialists, you will come up with an intervention plan and help your child learn.
Starting therapy from a young age
With autistic children, the key word is “early”. The earlier autism diagnosis and the earlier intervention, the more of a difference it will make. In therapy, the child can develop social and communication skills, and work on challenging behaviours. They will learn new skills and become more independent.
An autistic child who goes to therapy from a young age can develop their strengths, and work toward a better life quality. A diagnosis made within the first three years of life offers the best long-term outcome. Most parents only seek intervention after receiving the diagnosis, but your child can go to therapy before that. You can address worrying signs and work on teaching skills. Reach out to us at Side by Side Therapy to hear about the Early Start Denver Model, an ABA/developmental approach to teaching children with or suspected of autism.
Warning signs of autism
Each child is unique. The warning signs might differ and they might be present at various levels.
Even though you might notice the following signs, getting an accurate diagnosis is vital. Only a specialist can determine if your child has autism and point you in the right direction. If your child gets a diagnosis, they will have access to services and programs that would otherwise not be an option.
Warning signs of autism:
Lack of facial expressions, child does not smile
Limited or absent eye contact
Speech delays (no words by 16 months, no two word combinations by 24 months)
Does not respond to his/her name
Loss of previously gained skills
Does not point to items of interest
Does not like changes (routine, environment)
Prefers to play alone, does not engage in pretend play
Echolalia (persistent repetition of words/phrases, heard recently or in the past).
Early diagnosis, the first steps of the journey
It’s hard to find out that your child has autism. But the diagnosis will give you clarity of mind and help you take the first step of the journey. Together with autism therapists and a powerful network of support, you will create a path forward for your child.
Trust your instinct, especially if you have noticed one or several warning signs. Do not wait until your child is older. Go to a specialist now.
Often autistic children have language delays. Receptive language is the ability to understand information provided by other people, either verbally or in writing. Expressive language is the ability to put our own thoughts into words, both spoken and written. Speech therapy can help your child learn these valuable skills.
Autistic children might have a language delay, meaning their communication skills are not developing as expected. This delay can affect the receptive or expressive language and, in some situations, both. When the child does not follow a typical developmental pattern, all areas of their learning and development are impacted.
Language delays add to the complexity of ASD
Language delays add to the complexity of an autism diagnosis, having a negative impact on socialization and academic performance.
When a child has poor language abilities, she might find it hard to interact with peers. Children rely on verbal cues to play and take part in games, not to mention they need to understand language to follow instructions. The struggle is complex. The child cannot use expressive language to convey her thoughts. In addition, she might have a hard time understanding explanations or directions.
Receptive language disorder
When receptive language is delayed, the ability to understand words and associated concepts suffers. During the initial assessment, the therapist will determine the level of comprehension and establish an intervention plan.
Receptive language disorder is common in autistic children, affecting their ability to understand spoken language. The child might not follow directions, answer questions, or identify various objects. she might not understand gestures and their reading comprehension might suffer.
How does therapy help?
The speech-language pathologist can help the autistic child improve her receptive language. After identifying areas of need, the S-LP will use strategies to increase the level of comprehension. During therapy the S-LP will work on expanding comprehension, identifying pictures, following instructions and more. Progress will result in a higher level of independence and participation in activities of daily living.
Expressive language disorder
Many autistic children have difficulties in expressing their thoughts using words. Very often the expressive language is more affected than the receptive. Thus, the speech-language pathologist will concentrate on helping the child with the production of sounds and words. Visual support might facilitate the learning process.
Initially, the therapist will assess the child’s ability to use spoken language. She will also assess the child’s non-verbal communication. Based on the identified weaknesses, she will develop an intervention plan.
Autistic children who suffer from an expressive language disorder might have difficulties communicating their wants and needs. For instance, they might not say when they are hungry or if they need to use the toilet. Common struggles include using appropriate gestures and facial expression, correct choice of words and asking questions.
How does therapy help?
The S-LP will work to improve expressive language. During therapy, she will use strategies to teach the child to communicate her wants and needs. As therapy progresses the child will learn to express more complex thoughts and ideas.
The therapist might also use an augmentative and alternative communication system (AAC) to increase the expression of thoughts and feelings. Some examples are PECS, high-tech systems (LAMP etc) or even sign language. For more information about AAC read this blog post.
Mixed receptive and expressive language disorder
It can happen that both the expressive and receptive language abilities are impacted. In this situation, the speech-language pathologist will have to work on both areas, helping the child progress towards greater ease of communication. The earlier one starts intervention, the better the outcome is likely to be.
The most important thing to remember is that language impairments become visible as early as the first two years of life, when one can still take advantage of the brain’s neuroplasticity. Parents should be active in the intervention process, as they need how to communicate with their child and meet her on her level.
Patience is key in working to develop language abilities in autistic children. In the beginning, prompting and offering instructions in multiple steps might be highly beneficial. Also, one should provide the child with adequate time to respond. Visual supports can be useful in helping the child overcome any existing challenges and even to establish long-term communication.
For parents knowing how to choose a Speech-Language Pathologist can be tricky. The diagnosis of autism often involves language delays, causing parents to wonder what steps they should take in terms of intervention. Naturally, every parent wants the best for his/her child, including in therapy.
A Speech-Language Pathologist can help your child learn to communicate more effectively. But how can you be certain you have chosen the right S-LP? What are the things you should look for and what are the right questions to ask?
Things to consider in choosing a Speech-Language Pathologist
This might sound like a given but you need to choose a therapist that has experience in working with children. This kind of specialist will know how to approach the child so he/she feels comfortable. Therapy should look like play, especially for young children.
Experience is essential. A knowledgeable Speech-Language Pathologist should interact with the child through play, opting for subtle strategies to improve communication. He/she should involve the parents in the intervention. A transdisciplinary approach always guarantees the best results, and he/she should include parents at all times.
A good therapist knows that parents play a major role in the therapeutic progress the child will make. The S-LP should teach parents strategies to use at home, taking parental input and comfort level into account.
From a pragmatic perspective, you can get referrals or research for Speech-Language Pathologists online, looking at your province’s College of Speech-Language Pathologists. You can also ask your child’s paediatrician or the school counsellor for a recommendation. Other parents are also a good resource. Once you have found a therapist, be sure to inquire about certification and additional education on autism intervention.
Questions to ask when choosing a Speech-Language Pathologist :
When choosing a Speech-Language Pathologist it is normal to ask questions. It might be a good idea to start by asking about the experience that they have.
Don’t be afraid to ask about the methods used and the reasoning for choosing these. The S-LP should also be able to provide evidence supporting her/his recommendations and point you toward resources where you can learn more.
These are some questions you might ask:
Who will work with my child?
Often, the Speech-Language Pathologist is part of a transdisciplinary team, which includes a speech therapy assistant, a behavioural therapist, occupational therapist, educator and so on.
What are the primary objectives of intervention?
You will work on these together but as a general rule the principal aim is to improve communication and social interaction. In some children, feeding and swallowing issues might also be addressed.
How many years of experience do you have with autistic children?
This is not necessarily relevant, but it can help you get an idea about how knowledgeable the SLP is in this field. Follow up with some discussion about previous cases and outcomes.
What is your treatment philosophy?
You are putting your trust in a new person, so it is important to know this. A good therapist will work with the family. He/she will always take the child’s needs into account.
Do you use AAC (Augmentative and Alternative Communication)?
This is important, as it is beneficial for many autistic children at the beginning of therapy and even later on.
How do you gain the trust of a child?
Some children require time to trust a new person. A good therapist will respect the child and his/her uncertainty, putting his/her emotional well-being in first place. Therapy should be offered through a lens of caring and empathy.
Practical questions are important as well:
What does the initial assessment entail?
Can I use my insurance to pay for therapy?
Are your services available right now? Or do I have to join a waiting list?
How many hours of therapy are recommended per week? And how long is a therapy session?
Are parents allowed to observe therapy sessions?
How is the intervention plan established? Are we allowed to offer suggestions?
How is the progress the child has made assessed?
Do not hesitate to ask as many questions as possible, as this process will help you choose a Speech-Language Pathologist for your child. It never hurts to follow your instinct, as parents often have a gut feeling telling them they found the right person for the job.
Communication represents one of the core challenges for autistic children. Speech Therapy in autism treatment is essential. They may have difficulties engaging in a conversation. Not picking up on social cues, they might find it hard to interact with their peers.
A speech-language pathologist can help autistic children improve their communication and social skills. Addressing key areas, the therapy team will help the child overcome daily challenges and learn how to function within a social context.
What are some of the challenges caused by autism?
It depends on the severity of the condition – autism is a spectrum. Some children may not understand non-verbal communication easily, while others will have trouble with spoken language. They may need help learning to read or write or engage in conversations with others.
In severe forms of autism, the speech/language impairment will be more obvious. These children might not speak at all, or they might resort to challenging behaviours to express themselves. They may not seek interaction with others or prove unable to maintain eye contact.
Speech/language delays are among the first noticed by parents. Many go to their paediatrician or family doctor stating their concern that the child has lost some or all of the previously gained words.
Others are worried that their child constantly repeats certain words or phrases, either heard on the spot or weeks before. This is called echolalia. It can also serve the purpose of communication. The therapist will help the child resort less to repetition and rely more on novel speech.
How can Speech-Language Pathology help?
The first thing a Speech-Language Pathologist (S-LP) does is assess communication, articulation and social skills. The S-LP will notice any red flags, and work out an intervention plan to improve the areas. The primary goal is to help the child become more communicative within the home, school and social environments.
When we say communicative, it is important to remember that might not always refer to verbal language. There are children who will use other communication methods to interact with other people, and they will need help to master these. Some examples of other methods of communcation are: sign language, picture exchange, typing/writing or high-tech speech output devices.
During S-LP sessions, autistic children might work alone or in groups. The therapist will facilitate interaction, teaching the child to use appropriate communication behaviours. The child will learn to maintain eye contact, take turns and communicate according to the context and other’s cues. They will also work to develop reading and writing skills where possible.
A non-verbal child can communicate
You might not know this, but 90% of communication is non-verbal. If an autistic child presents severe language impairment, he/she might still communicate. Through speech-language pathology, he/she can learn alternative means of communication.
The S-LP can teach him/her to understand and use gestures correctly. Communication systems can be helpful, including those based on pictures or visual supports. Some children find it easy to communicate with the help of electronic devices. The goal is to find the best method for each child, taking his/her abilities and challenges into consideration.
What about verbal children?
Once again, the intervention depends on the language and communication difficulties the child is experiencing. All children must learn the appropriate use of language and how to have a conversations with their peers and those around them.
At more advanced levels, Speech-Language Pathology might help the child understand the complexity of language. For instance, that a word can have more than one meaning or how certain expressions are used figuratively.
Social communication, one of the primary goals of S-LP
Human beings are social creatures by nature, and autistic children do not represent an exception. With the help of S-LP, they can learn how to interact with their peers and overcome the communication their challenges.
The Speech-Language Pathologist will work with the child to adapt his/her language to the correct context. They will explore non-verbal cues in a social setting and practice with other children.
It takes time, but some children can learn to recognize verbal and non-verbal cues, improving their communication abilities. This will help them feel less frustrated. When these skills improve, the challenging behaviours often become less frequent. This will have a positive effect on the academic outcome.
S-LP, helping with early diagnosis of autism
When parents have concerns about their child’s development, speech and language delays are present at the top of the list. The Speech-Language Pathologist can help with the early diagnosis of autism, recognizing the red flags associated with communication and social skills problems. The earlier the diagnosis of autism is made, the more successful the specialized intervention can be.
S-LP and the Ontario Autism Program
Your child can access S-LP services using their OAP funding (legacy funding, childhood budgets and one-time interim funding). Here is a list of eligible services and supports that can be purchased with the funding.
The brain has a unique property called neuroplasticity. This means that our brains are constantly able to change and grow. Children under 5 years old have the easiest time with neuroplasticity. Even when the child has been diagnosed with autism, it is possible to make significant gains that are life changing. We can achieve this through early intervention. Specifically by using the Early Start Denver Model, we can begin even before a diagnosis is made.
Within a therapeutic environment, the autistic child presents a higher chance of developing language, cognition, and social interaction abilities. We can teach skills to overcome the challenges associated with the autism diagnosis. But the essential thing is for the intervention to begin early on.
ESDM: The earlier, the better
Developmental specialists recommend the therapy to start as early as possible, as this leads to the best outcomes. Parents should not wait for the diagnosis but seek the help of a therapist as soon as they have suspicions about their child’s development.
The sooner we start the intervention, the better the outcome is likely to be. Parents might struggle to accept the diagnosis, but they should waste no time in pursuing therapy.
A better chance of addressing behavioural issues
Autistic children often have challenging behaviours which become more challenging over time. Addressing challenging behaviours is generally easier in younger children because they don’t have a long learning history. Having a long learning history means that the behaviour has been reinforced for a long time. Similar to a habit, behaviours with long learning histories are hard to break.
If there are challenging or non-adaptive behaviours present early intervention can replace them with alternative behaviours. The key is teaching replacement behaviours that meet the same needs but are more effective. For example, if a child is taught that they will get your attention if they cry, they will keep crying. They do this because that strategy works. But if you reward a child for using another strategy (e.g.: a word approximation, directed eye gaze or pointing) they will use the new behaviour instead. And then the challenging behaviour will fade away.
ESDM: Individualized intervention from an early age
The therapist will develop an individualized intervention plan, based on the child’s needs, behavioural issues and the use of the Early Start Denver Model Curriculum Checklist. The Curriculum Checklist is a list of skills that are divided into levels that represent different ages. The therapist uses the Curriculum Checklist to assess your child’s strengths and areas of need relative to same age peers. The purpose of the intervention plan is to help the child develop a wide range of skills including: attention, communication and interaction.
As mentioned above, a structured environment will offer opportunities for learning. It facilitates the growth of skills, while it allows the therapist or parent to monitor the progress being made on a consistent basis. The therapist can adjust the plan as necessary, but the chief goal will remain the same: the child learns through play while having fun.
Early Intervention: Families receive support early on
As parents of special needs children, especially autistic children, it is normal to feel helpless and frustrated. Early intervention, though, can be highly beneficial for the entire family. It can provide support early on, reducing the amount of stress parents experience. Having an action plan and strategies to use will help parents to feel empowered and as though they are taking action.
It is vital that the parents are also implementing the strategies and using therapeutic interventions with their children. The child has a limited number of hours with the therapist each week but many more hours with their parents. These hours should be maximized!
What matters is that they capture the attention of the child and pursue communication. Being creative and silly will go a long way.
ESDM: A combination of ABA and play
An experienced therapist will give the child time to become accustomed to the unfamiliar environment, chaining skills together to create a smooth session. It takes time to build the relationship, and only then will the therapist focus on addressing behavioural issues, cognitive and speech delays, etc.
Taking advantage of the brain’s neuroplasticity
We see the best results up to the age of five years, as that is when the child’s brain is most malleable. We can unleash the learning potential in therapy and limit the effects of the autism diagnosis. As a result, the overall quality of life can improve, thanks to the newly learned skills.
The benefits of early intervention using the Early Start Denver Model in autistic children are obvious. The earlier the child enters a structured, therapeutic environment, the better his/her progress will be. Parents should actively collaborate with the therapist, practicing taught strategies at home and helping their children unleash their full potential.
To learn more about how Side by Side Therapy can help your child with an Early Start Denver Model program, please connect with us!
Parents are often the first ones to notice that their child isn’t developing, especially in terms of communication. The lack of infant babble, the absence of eye contact and reduced interest in interaction are just a few of the features that cause one to question a potential diagnosis of autism. It is possible and often practical to begin speech therapy in Toronto before a formal diagnosis is given.
Autistic children might also present a limited range of facial expressions, being unable to comprehend language or show a regression (loss of words). The sooner Speech Therapy in Toronto is started, the better the outcomes are going to be. In this article, you will find a number of therapeutic strategies which might be of help.
Speech Therapy in Toronto Strategies:
#1 Using non-verbal communication
Interestingly, non-verbal communication accounts for 90% of all communication. Our body language, the gestures we make, along with eye contact, help us interact with other people and communicate our needs.
A good strategy is teaching the child, through imitation, gestures that can be used daily. You can begin with gestures that are easy to imitate such as: clapping the hands, waving, stomping feet or raising arms in the air.
#2 Oral Motor Exercises
For children who exhibit few or no facial expressions, this strategy might be quite useful. Performed regularly, it can strengthen the oral muscles, especially the ones around the mouth and jaw.
The exercises can be practiced with a mirror, so your child is able to see what their face looks like when they make the specific movements. You can get some ideas of exercises from this Youtube Channel: Speech Therapy Practice. They have a series of different videos depicting different exercises you can try with your child.
#3 Animal noises
A fun beginning step to teach vocal speech might be to try and have the child make animal noises, especially if the child is motivated by animals. Capitalizing on this motivation might be helpful in engaging your child in doing the difficult work of learning to make the sounds.
Various toys or books can be used to introduce the child to animal sounds. As his/her interest becomes visible, you can move to more complex games – perhaps you can create a toy barn or an animal train, having fun in the process. Be patient and have fun.
#4 Singing songs
Very few children dislike music. Singing can help the child to learn new vocabulary, rhythm and even new topics or ideas.
In choosing songs, it is important to take into account not only the current communication abilities of your child, but also their cognitive level. Nursery rhymes are a great place to start for younger children but older children can be introduced to all kinds of music.
#5 Technology as basis for communication
We are lucky to live in an age where technology is advanced, creating opportunities for us to help autistic children communicate. Augmentative and alternative communication represents an option for children with limited or no functional speech, allowing them to communicate desires, needs, preferences, dislikes and comment.
There are devices that contain recorded messages, which the child can use with the push of a button. As progress is made, these messages can become more complex. A low tech alternative is a picture exchange communication system. You can read more about Alternative and Augmentative Communication in this blog I wrote at the end of April.
#6 Learning how to sequence and tell a story
This is a strategy which is generally used in children with more advanced receptive language, allowing them to continue to develop their language. You would present them with images of the parts of a story, and ask them to put them in order.
For example, you might provide a picture of an empty glass with a carton of milk beside it, another picture with a full glass of milk and a third picture with half the glass of milk drank by a child in the picture.
In opting for this activity, you would choose to begin by presenting the stories or situations that your child has experienced. This makes it more concrete and is easier for the child. In time, he/she can do this activity alone, or even draw his/her own pictures to tell a story. Many children enjoy ‘authoring’ their own stories.
#7 Pretend play
Pretend play is a difficult skill for an autistic child to achieve but, with perseverance, it will help improve many aspects of the child’s development. On the plus side, it helps with social interaction, reinforcing communication again and again.
The strategy would be to choose some of the child’s favorite activities, expanding on their existing sounds, words or sentences. Once you’ve identified what your child is doing naturally, you want to encourage the next step.
For example, if your child is building towers with blocks, you might begin labeling the colours of the blocks or dividing the blocks into colour groups to make red buildings and blue buildings. You could also create a road (by laying the blocks side by side instead of on top of each other) to expand their play.
With expanded play comes the opportunity for you to model expanded language use. The more you speak to the child, the more likely it will be for new words to appear in his/her vocabulary.
ABA stands for applied behaviour analysis. It is a form of therapy based on the sciences of behaviour and learning. In some, it will lead to remarkable progress, helping them acquire an important number of skills. ABA is the most widely studied and most effective therapy for autism and related developmental disorders.
Why should you consider ABA in Toronto for your child?
We have gathered nine of the most important reasons why one could benefit from this type of therapy. ABA in Toronto focuses on teaching socially significant behaviours, meaning behaviours that have a high probability of being important and pivotal to the child and family.
Autistic children often play in a stereotypical manner, engaging in repetitive behaviours. Through ABA in Toronto, they can be taught how to engage in spontaneous play, using a wide range of toys and learning to take turns.
The therapist might facilitate the learning experience, prompting the child with the appropriate behavior. The therapist can also teach leisure skills, helping one develop a hobby, or an interest for personal enjoyment.
#2 Social Skills
If a child already has good language skills, ABA in Toronto would be useful in teaching the necessary social skills for making friends. The more one practices social situations, the easier it will be to interact with peers in real life.
ABA in Toronto can help the child develop additional skills (i.e: sharing, turn-taking, rule following etc) which might be useful for daily interaction with other children. These skills are addressed using structured play dates, social games and role play, among other strategies.
#3 Activities of Daily Living (ADLs)
For an autistic child, going through the normal routine can be challenging. In ABA in Toronto, he or she can learn and practice the tasks associated with the routine, including dressing and feeding.
In teaching how ADLs should be performed, the therapist will take into account the child’s gross and fine motor skills, as well as their cognitive and speech skill levels. At-home practicing can help to jumpstart generalization and maintenance.
A big part of ABA in Toronto involves helping the child communicate more effectively. As the language skills develop, it will be less challenging to interact with peers.
The child will learn how to handle situations by him/herself, developing the necessary confidence for more complex tasks and to be more independent. Positive reinforcement is used to foster skills, so that the child is less reliant on his parent or caregiver.
Autistic children can struggle from an academic point of view, requiring help in that learning as well. ABA in Toronto can help develop reading and writing skills, as well as mathematical abilities.
The strategies used in therapy can and should be implemented not only at home but also in the classroom. Many classrooms are built on a foundation of ABA, without even intending to be. Most good teachers utilize the principles of ABA (even if they don’t call it ABA).
All children grow and become adults. As the child advances in age, ABA in Toronto will be useful in teaching self-advocacy – it will teach the child to speak up for him/herself, asking for what s/he needs. All children need to learn to become self-advocates.
Even in non-verbal children, ABA therapy can teach the child how to communicate immediate needs, preferences and how to protest and stop undesired situations.
#7 Quality of Life
As mentioned at the beginning, ABA in Toronto aims to improve socially significant behaviour. All of the things that the child will learn in therapy will contribute to a better overall quality of life. Even though the days might seem long and the therapy sessions will require a lot of dedication, in the end, you will have a child who likes his/her life.
By fostering independence, language and social interaction, just to name a few, ABA empowers the child and his/her family.
#8 Parent Involvement and Learning
As a parent, it is normal to want your child to reach his/her full potential. In autistic children this path to reaching full potential can seem impossible. ABA can help parents benefit from a positive change in themselves, teaching them the skills needed to fight for their children.
Taking part in therapy sessions, you will learn how to help your child develop useful skills and assess the progress he/she has made. The therapist can also guide the at-home teaching process.
#9 Renewed Optimism
Sometimes, parents have a hard time seeing the strengths of their autistic child, as they rather concentrate only on the challenges their children face. ABA can help to highlight these strengths and transform them into learning opportunities. You will see your child being successful in ABA in Toronto and it will give you a new lens with which to view your child.
During the ABA therapy sessions, you might also learn what motivates your child, allowing you to use these preferences later on to teach or maintain skills outside of a therapy session.
If you are looking for ABA in Toronto, we recommend you connect with us. We can talk more about the services we offer and schedule a no charge consultation to assess your child’s needs. Looking forward to hearing from you!
This by no means, should suggest, that these children understand less, but rather, they just have difficulty expressing what they understand. Speaking is one of the most effective ways of communicating and it allows us to successfully interact and navigate our way through life. However, for many ASDchildren, they do not have this option and sadly, therefore, have a greater challenge to having their needs and wants understood.
How can Speech Therapy help?
If you are a parent of an ASDchild that is non-verbal or struggles with communicating, this can be very stressful and overwhelming. It is important to know that there is help. To date, numerous tools and programs have been developed to aid in these communication and language development barriers. These are known as Alternative and Augmentative Communication (AAC) systems.
AACis an alternative method of communicating, outside of traditional speech, that has been developed to assist children with communication and language developmental issues. These systems can be added to your child’s existing speech therapy programs, however, they can also introduce new and alternative ways of dealing with communication issues.
AAC is a way to provide your ASD child with the ability to relay their thoughts and needs through alternative ways that include the use of pictures, gestures, sign language, visual aids or speech-output devices such as an iPad or Tablet.
These AAC systems give your child access to their right to communicate and helps to ensure that their needs are being heard, taken into account and addressed. Every person deserves the right to share in the decisions surrounding their care and well being.
Sounds liberating, (not only for your child but for you, the parents and caregivers), doesn’t it? Taking the guesswork out of what your child is trying to communicate helps to reduce stress, for everyone, and opens up the opportunity to build stronger relationships between your child and the rest of their social and support network.
Here is a breakdown of the types of AAC – Unaided andAided & Low and High Tech
Unaided systems – These systems don’t require the use of any equipment. Gestures, facial expressions, body language and sign language are some examples of unaided systems used to communicate.
Aided systems – These systems use tools or materials and can be either low-tech or high-tech. Some examples of low-tech are symbol boards, choice cards, communication books, alphabet boards or cards. High-tech examples include speech-generating devices (SGD) or communication devices and AAC apps on mobile devices.
Below I will further elaborate on four of the aided systems that I feel may be helpful with your ASD child’s path to achieving successful communication.
Picture Exchange Communication Systems (PECS) – This program is a tool to aid in communication with non-verbal ASD children. PECS is a program where pictures of desired objects are exchanged (such as clothes or food) as a way of communicating. These pictures can be photographs, digitally created images or hand-drawn pictures.
When a child wants something, they would hand a picture of the desired item to their communication partner (the parent, peer or care-giver) in exchange for the desired object. PECS begins with a basic request which will be extended to include sentences and eventually comments as well.
As with most things that are of value and worthwhile, this program can take a long time (months) to become independent. It also requires special training and materials and is able to be supervised by anyone who has taken the PECS training (usually speech therapists or BCBAs).
While some children will be able to pair a vocalization with the exchange, PECS itself does not teach the use of vocal language. Creating a ‘verbal’ child is not the goal but rather creating a ‘communicative’ child is the end goal.
Speech Generating Devices (SGDs) or Voice Output Devices – These are hand-held electronic devices that when a child presses a button or flips a switch, the device will play pre-recorded words or phrases. These SGDs allow non-verbal people to communicate electronically. Therefore, in its most basic form, if a child would like a banana, they would press a picture of a banana and the device would then say “banana”, “banana please”, “I want banana” or I would like a banana, please” (or some other variation) in a pre-recorded human voice.
Three examples of apps that can be paired with designated devices or used on tablets or iPads to become SGDs are:
TouchChat HD with WordPower – Although this is one of the most costly communication apps on the market, this program offers a range of options that far outweigh the competition. Utilizing Its voice recording capabilities allows you to touch individualized set-up cells and the program will then conveniently speak.
LINGGO – This is a mobile app used on an iPad or tablet that’s currently in beta testing. It was created by a team led by a behaviour analyst in Toronto. The app lists words that are most used and relevant to the child’s daily needs, preferences and social activities. Linggo learns the language patterns of its users through machine learning. Linggo also aims to enhance literacy by transitioning the learner from using picture based communication to written words and phrases.
Linggo also encourages vocal speech in the learner with the optional time delay feature to allow time for the learner to vocalize before the app. One of the most exciting parts of Linggo is that it gathers data on the learner’s independent vs prompted communications which will help the speech therapy team fine tune the teaching program to achieve maximum learning and communication.
LAMP Words for Life – This is an AAC app that is available for the iPad. It is based on the motor planning theory of language acquisition. It utilizes pre-designed vocabulary pages that do not require much individualization or adjusting. This allows the user to transition between pages without having to re-learn the positions of previously acquired words. There is evidence to suggest that children can become more proficient AAC users using motor planning because there is less searching for icons and specific phrases or sentences become almost rote.
Now that you know about some of the AAC systems, implementation may be another challenge. Finding professional help can be useful and will play a very important role in your child’s communication development. It is important to work closely with a Speech Therapy team to ensure that you are using the correct AAC systems.
Some AAC programs can be quite costly, you want to be sure they are worthwhile and effective for your child’s specific needs. A Speech Therapy teamwill often include a Speech-Language Pathologist, a communication disorder assistant or speech therapy assistant. The Speech Therapy team will take into consideration which AAC is appropriate and valuable for your child and will be able to address the many questions you will have. Furthermore, they will create and implement a program that will work with your child at their current stage of communication development and capabilities.
Some advantages of AAC as described by users include:
Improved ability to communicate
Stronger friendships and relationships
Increased ability for social interactions
Increased involvement in decision-making and autonomy regarding their lives
A feeling of being respected
Access to employment and volunteer opportunities
An improvement in physical and mental health.
AAC systems have proven to be tools that can open up doors for your ASD child by empowering them to communicate their needs and wishes. Through the set-up of a well-designed communication program with the help of a Speech Therapyteam, including the use of AAC tools and consistent practice, your child will find that a whole new world of opportunities can become available.
If you would like help developing your child’s communication skills using AAC or otherwise, please contact us to set up a no-charge consultation today.
Equality and equity are words that are often understood as being synonymous as they both have the implication of fairness, however, the two meanings are actually very different. Equality means to have the same opportunities as everyone else. Equity speaks to ensuring that everyone has the opportunities they need to be successful.
There have been many political movements that have espoused equal rights: women’s groups, minority groups, autism advocacy groups and other disability rights groups.
With equality, it is assumed that everyone has the same starting point and should be treated in exactly the same way. While with equity, the belief is that not all people start at the same point and for that reason, each person should receive (based on their distinct abilities) what they need to be successful. In understanding the difference between the two, we can conclude that fairness does not mean equality.
Modifications and Accommodations for Autism
While the idea behind equality is to treat everyone “fairly” and “equally”, it has sadly missed the mark when looking at fairness around Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Assuming that everyone is equal and is starting from the same place (which we know is not true, especially in autism) can actually create unintentional barriers. For instance, modifications are necessary for those with autism to be successful in their daily routines.
Making practical changes allows the starting point to truly become one of fairness. Simply put, modifications and adjustments are how we can promote fairness and ensure that all people are provided with the tools they need to achieve success.
An example of these modifications put into action is an autism framework is that of a child who has sensory concerns or challenging behaviour and has trouble sitting in a circle on the floor with the rest of the class. Pressuring the child to join on the floor may create resistance or even a meltdown which affects not only the autistic child but the class as a whole. A small concession that a teacher may make is to allow the child to sit on a chair in the circle to help with engagement and integration.
Yes, this may seem to some degree “unfair” to the other children or “special treatment”, however with this minor adjustment being made to accommodate a child that has additional needs, the teacher has effectively created a more positive and successful learning environment not only for the autistic child but for the entire class as well.
We cannot and must not expect every child to fit into one box and hope that success will be the same across the board. We have to realize that accommodations and flexibility provided by parents, professionals and autism caregivers are not only kind but are actually essential to achieving true equity.
As these adjustments are necessary, we need to position them as being so. Instead of the modification being looked at as unfair, it rather should be seen as levelling the playing field to ensure fairness. If we don’t make a big deal about these accommodations than others (classmates, siblings etc.) won’t either. We need to keep in mind that it’s not only those with autism that are different, but we are also all different in our own way and therefore have different capabilities and needs.
In focussing too much on equality and fairness, we end up overlooking the wonderfulness of difference. Instead, we need to look at each person individually to ensure equity and flexibility are at the forefront. Then and only then we can indeed provide fairness in its truest form.
To further exemplify, here in Ontario, Canada all of the changes that are being proposed and made regarding the Ontario Autism Program’s funding is a prime example of the misunderstanding surrounding equality and equity. The province seems to be under the impression that allocating the same amount of funds for children who fall within provincially designated categories (age, etc). will provide equality across the board. However, where the mistake lies is that autism does not affect each person in the same ways.
Therefore, funding and resources should not be allocated based on provincially set rigid categories such as age, and should instead be provided and distributed based on individual need. As autism falls on a spectrum from mild to severe, one child who is nonverbal may require, for example, far more Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) Therapy or Speech Therapy, than a verbal autistic child. This example is just one of many reasons why “equality” in this case will just not work.
Below is a helpful example of a lesson that can be played with your children to help explain this confusing topic:
The One Size Fits All Band-Aid Lesson – Ask the children to share their most serious injury: some may say a broken arm, a dislocated shoulder or a cut on the forehead. Once the injuries have been acknowledged, explain to them that your solution to heal them is to provide them each with a band-aid.
This solution will most likely raise some confusion to the children, as how is a band-aid supposed to fix a broken arm or a dislocated shoulder? This unhelpful solution shows that there is not one solution to all situations and that each situation needs to be addressed in it’s own way. Even though using the same solution (the band-aid) may in theory seem fair, how can this “equal” method of treating three different injuries be acceptable? All that is accomplished is that only a small number of people actually get the help they need while the rest of the group suffers.
Once again, it is important to remember that there is a difference between equality and equity. Fairness can only truly be gained with compromises and modifications which ensure that all people are indeed given the tools they need to be successful. Would you not agree to a person with bad eyesight getting glasses or a non-english speaker having a translator at the hospital? It is a similar situation when making adjustments for autistic children and others with exceptionalities.
We know that not all people are born the same, and in keeping this in mind, we need to continue to work towards levelling the playing field to ensure actual fairness is received.
Receiving a diagnosis that your child has Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is not only scary but overwhelming too. There are so many questions and while there is a vast amount of research to turn to these answers often only result in further questions and possibly further confusion.
It is important to rely on your treatment team including a Board-Certified Behaviour Analyst in Toronto (BCBA) for support and guidance as they understand just how exhausting and challenging such a diagnosis can be. Working together will help with your child and family’s success both at home and at school.
Here are some helpful tips to try when your child gets an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis:
1. Become an Expert in your Child’s Needs, Likes and Dislikes
Each child with autism spectrum disorder is different and we need to embrace, understand and support their differences. This can be achieved through research and asking questions about autism spectrum disorder and more specifically your child’s individual needs. As each child is unique, you must remain open minded about their experience of having autism. Once you gain some knowledge you will then be able to ask insightful questions to help build the best treatment plan for your child.
The best place to start is with your child’s family physician, they will be able to refer you to an autism consultant who can work with you to develop a team. Your physician should also be able to provide you with useful resources such as finding the best Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) therapist or group including Board Certified Behaviour Analysts (BCBA) for your child. Remember finding the right therapist may take time and patience. There is no such thing as “one size fits all” in a treatment plan.
2. Find Help through Technology
As technology has become an integral resource within our society, it has become a very useful tool for parents of children with autism spectrum disorder. Firstly, a vast array of knowledge and research regarding your child’s diagnosis and treatment can be gained through the internet. Secondly, technology is also used as a resource for community building through social media including parenting groups and intervention discussion forums. Here there is an opportunity to seek the support and experiences from parents in similar situations and professionals in the field. These communities are amazing and can help one to realize they are not alone.
Lastly, and perhaps most importantly, technology holds a critical use for autism spectrum disorder children that have communication difficulties and is used as a tool to remove this barrier. AAC (Alternative and Augmentative Communication) gives a voice to children who cannot speak using tablets or computers with specialized apps that utilize text or image to speech technology. These are sometimes called SGD (Speech Generating Devices).
3. Get Intervention as Soon as Possible
Parents that feel that their child might have autism spectrum disorder should speak with their child’s physician as early as possible to investigate a diagnosis. Don’t allow your child’s doctor to dissuade you or convince you to ‘wait and see’. With an early diagnosis and then prompt invention parents are able to start working towards helping their child to address interfering behaviours and increase communication skills.
Intervention is most effective in younger children. If your child’s interfering or challenging behaviour (e.g.: outburst in public) is addressed and dealt with early on, then the hope is that through reinforcing positive or desirable behaviour, the child will eventually be independent in the future in the same situations. Positive outcomes are possible for older children as well, so don’t give up if your child is older when they begin to receive treatment.
4. Ensure your Child’s Treatment is a Family Affair
An autism spectrum disorder diagnosis not only affects the diagnosed child but it affects the entire family. It’s therefore necessary that the therapy plan includes siblings’ and parents’ opinions and experiences. Since schedules and rules set out in the plan will put expectations on the entire family, their input and buy-in is imperative for the success of the program.
It is also vital that family members are involved in the treatment plan to ensure that generalization occurs. This means that your child is able to demonstrate all the skills they are learning in new settings and with new people instead of only with the treatment team. It may become a balancing act for you, however with support, consistency and careful consideration and execution of the therapist’s recommendations your day-to day routines will become less overwhelming.
5. Trust your BCBA, Treatment Team and the Process
As mentioned, finding the right BCBA and program can be a difficult journey, however, once this is accomplished you will soon see that you are on the right path. As your child is unique in their needs you must remain optimistic and open-minded. There will be necessary tweaks and adjustments along the way and through trial and error, you will certainly see positive changes.
Finding a team that suits your family’s needs and expectations is extremely important. You will also need to ensure there is a constant flow of communication between your family and your child’s BCBA so that modifications can be implemented and changes made whenever required.
6. Celebrate the Successes
As you continue to fill your toolbox with more tips and knowledge it will open the door for greater success. At times there may be a lot of growth and positive changes and at others, there may be little or none. It is important to stay focused on the positive and reflect on the successes and celebrate them frequently. Continuing to stay on course and provide consistent routines and expectations for your child. The more you celebrate the successes the more likely it will be that you feel good about your child and family’s future.
7. Make Safety a Top Priority
The challenges and long-term responsibilities that come with an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis can be additional stress placed upon an autism parent. To help ease the sense of being overwhelmed it is important to get organized and put proper measures into place for a “just in case” situation (for example, looking into life insurance for family members). As children with autism can engage in more dangerous behaviour (wandering, mouthing and self- injury) a safety plan is essential.
It is necessary to develop a plan to address these safety risks with your treatment team. For example, you should ensure that your child always carries or wears identification, especially if they are a wanderer. A simple google search will yield many options for safety tools for your child with autism spectrum disorder.
8. Work on Establishing a Good Sleep Routine
One of the challenges many children with autism spectrum disorder face is difficulty sleeping. Poor sleeping can exacerbate some of the challenging behaviours associated with autism such as impulsivity, compulsions, hyperactivity and physical aggression. Good sleep hygiene is vital to providing your child with quality restful sleep.
Keep in mind a few things while creating a routine, for instance: maintaining consistent times for going to bed and waking up; how much light is in their bedroom while they’re trying to sleep; ensuring your child has enough play time during the day and not too much screen time prior to bed; perhaps instituting a wind-down quiet period before bed; taking sensory issues into account, i.e. itchy pajama’s, white noise etc.
If your child has recently received an ASD diagnosis and you are looking for ways that the Ontario Government can support you, please know that changes to the Ontario Autism Program are in the process of being established. They are working towards creating a new “needs -based and sustainable autism program”. Eligibility for this program has the following criteria:
To register for the Ontario Autism Program, your child must:
be under age 18
currently live in Ontario
have a written diagnosis of autism for a qualified professional
Your child’s written diagnosis must include:
your child’s full name and date of birth
the date of your child’s assessment
a statement indicating that the child meets the diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder
the qualified professional’s name and credentials
For registration information please contact the central intake and registration team at:
The site notes that if you have registered in the Ontario Autism Program before April 1, 2019 you do not need to register again. As well, they mention that once your registration is complete, your child will be added to their waitlist and you will receive a letter from the ministry when it is time to complete further steps to receive funding.
Additional services and support are provided by the Ontario government for children with special needs, these are listed below:
Hello, my name is Lindsey Malc. I’m the founder and Clinical Director of Side by Side Therapy. In 2013, I became a Board Certified Behaviour Analyst. I have spent my entire career working with children with special needs and their families. I have extensive experience in clinical as well as community settings. I have worked primarily with autistic children but have considerable experience working with typically developing children with challenging behaviour as well.
I graduated with a Master of Applied Disability Studies degree from Brock University. I also hold an Honours Bachelor of Social Work degree from Lakehead University. I worked for many years at Zareinu Educational Centre (now known as Kayla’s Children Centre). At Zareinu, I held many positions, from classroom assistant to Behaviour Analyst. In my 14 years at Zareinu, I was fortunate to learn from a trans-disciplinary team of therapists who were passionate about helping our students achieve their maximums. Working with Psychologists, Speech-Language Pathologists, Occupational Therapists, Physiotherapists, Social Workers, Special Education Teachers, Early Childhood Educators and Recreational Therapists provided me with a very well rounded understanding of and respect for these vital disciplines.
How I, Lindsey Malc, can help your child and family
I will help you better understand how you and the environment are impacting and maintaining your child’s behaviour. Using Applied Behaviour Analysis, I will provide you with alternatives and help guide you to effective ways that you can change your child’s behaviour. Looking at the antecedents, behaviours and consequences will be the starting point for this service. We will meet weekly or biweekly and will discuss what has happened since our last meeting. I will ask you to take some data because it can be difficult to remember everything and then analyze the information and identify patterns.
I work with private schools or daycares to identify the function of challenging behaviour and to develop intervention plans that will be effective and easy to implement. Individual programs or class-wide behaviour interventions can be developed. Realistic data tracking and follow up are provided. These meetings can happen weekly, bi-weekly or monthly depending on your needs.
If your child with autism or other developmental disability is struggling with a specific skill or skill set, I can develop a targeted intervention to address this need. I would develop the intervention and teach you or a caregiver how to implement it. We will meet weekly or bi-weekly. Manageable data collection would be an integral part of this intervention with the goal of empowering you to implement the same strategies to address future goals as they arise.
If you’re looking for a comprehensive ABA Therapy program, to address all areas of your child’s development I can be the Clinical Supervisor for your child’s ABA program. I qualify as a Clinical Supervisor for the Ontario Autism Program and am listed on the OAP provider list. I will complete a curriculum assessment and develop all of the teaching programs and targets for your child’s ABA program. I am happy to work with you to develop your child’s treatment team and to train the staff in all of the behavioural interventions that they will be implementing. Supervisions would occur either weekly or monthly, depending on the supervision structure of your ABA team.
If you are pursuing BCBA or BCaBA certification, I am also available to supervise all of part of your experience hours.
I would be happy to discuss your ABA Therapy programming needs. Please don’t hesitate to contact me.