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How to use visual schedules to reduce challenging behaviour

Visual schedules can help an autistic child be less anxious. They present daily activities, as well as the sequence in which these activities will unfold. A high level of predictability brings comfort and will even reduce challenging behaviour. 

Depending on the child’s developmental level, the schedule can be made with photographs, drawings or pictures. Sometimes they can have written words or actual objects. The schedule can be displayed on a wall or on paper. For children who go to school, the schedule can be placed inside a notebook. 

Also, parents can add a todo list to each activity. This shows all of the steps the child needs to take in order for a specific task to be completed. 

Are visual schedules effective at reducing challenging behaviour in autistic children?

Yes. According to a study published on solutions to decrease challenging behaviour, the use of activity schedules can help children who have been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. 

The study showed that visual schedules worked for children with difficulty following rules. The authors point out that visual schedules promote self-regulation and independence.

The introduction of a visual schedule is particularly important when it comes to children who have academic demands to meet. These children sometimes have difficulties meeting these demands, and this is where the challenging behaviour commonly occurs. The visual schedule can reduce the stress experienced by parents as well as promote learning and cooperation in children. 

Example of a visual schedule on the wall of a classroom.
autism aba therapy lindsey malc side by side therapy visual schedule

Why should you consider visual scheduling? 

Visual schedules offer the perfect opportunity to teach an autistic child to complete the required activities in a day. Thanks to the todo list, you can break down a task into smaller steps, which are easier to complete. Small steps are easily achieved and provide opportunities for more frequent reinforcement.

Visual schedules offer to the child one of the things they look for the most: predictability. As they will learn to use the schedule, they will often become less anxious. Moreover, by using prompts and reinforcement, as you have been taught by your Board Certified Behaviour Analyst, you can decrease resistance and escape maintained behaviours. 

In simple terms, you can see the visual schedules as a constant reminder for your child. They will know exactly which activities to complete every day and where they will occur. Most importantly, they will know the order in which things will happen. . 

How to use visual schedules to improve your child’s behaviour 

As with any new intervention, you should expect for the child to resist the introduction of a schedule. Practice together, using plenty of praise and reinforcement.

Be patient and give your child the time they need to become comfortable with using the schedule. Keep in mind that some time might pass before they accept the visual prompt, following the routine as expected. At first, offer schedule check reminders frequently.

In time, and after plenty of practice, the child will indeed turn to the schedule, enjoying its predictability. The interesting thing is that, by predicting and in turn enjoying the activities you have included on the schedule, your little one will have fewer opportunities to misbehave. 

Be sure to acknowledge the efforts the child is making in following the schedule. Use simple phrases like “good job checking your schedule” or “nice work keeping up with the to do list”. You can give your child thumbs up, offer a smile or offer a hug. What matters is that you recognize they are trying, celebrating even the smallest achievement together.

You can try adding a preferred activity at the end of the schedule alternatively, so that he/she will understand that he/she can engage in that activity once everything else has been completed. Offer options to children who are able to choose; if your child has trouble making choices, select an activity you already know he/she enjoys. 

Will visual schedules bring a difference to our daily routine?

Once again, the answer is yes. The child will learn to follow a simple schedule, becoming more organized as a result. He/she will thrive from knowing what lays ahead, no longer feeling confused. The familiar routine presented through visual aids will genuinely reduce the level of anxiety your child feels.

Using visual schedules will help your child make transitions between activities as well as between tasks within an activity. By using the todo list, and presenting the child with the exact steps to follow for an activity, you will reduce the risk of inattention and/or misbehaviour.

Using a visual schedule will give your autistic child a better chance to succeed. Challenging behaviour meets an unmet need that your child is experiencing. Challenging behaviour can be attributed to one of the 4 functions of behaviour.

World Autism Awareness Day: April 2, 2020

Add Your Voice to the Giant Autism Billboard for World Autism Awareness Day
Add Your Voice to the Giant Autism Billboard for World Autism Awareness Day

World Autism Awareness Day is today, which means it’s a great time to contribute to the Giant Autism Billboard (see it here). It’s a thought-provoking project centred around the importance of autism awareness, and it stems from the belief that the sharing of lived experiences is a great way to help others gain a better understanding of neurodiversity.

The Giant Autism Billboard, an online collaboration that invites autistic people of all ages as well as their family members, caretakers, and doctors to condense their life experience and advice about autism into one pearl of wisdom to share with the world, the idea, thought, or message they most feel represents their experience. Finding a way to distill life with neurodiversity into one statement is no mean feat, but it has inspired many voices throughout the autism community to offer their unique input.

Autism Awareness Day is only a starting point

The large collaborative project serves to illustrate an idea that’s central to autism awareness, which is that no two neurodiverse people are alike and no one’s experience with autism is exactly the same. This helps to create an understanding of autism as a spectrum of behavioural differences which are experienced uniquely, defying negative stereotypes and embracing the idea that neurodiversity can bring skills in addition to challenges. The project celebrates the voices of those affected, acknowledging that they are most able to provide true autism awareness and amplifying their voices to contribute to the cause.

The Giant Autism Billboard will be featured on the We The Parents website during the month of April, which has been designated as World Autism Awareness month. The site was founded in 2017 by parents Neve and Keane as a welcoming, judgement-free resource which parents can look to for advice, and takes special interest in supporting families affected by autism.            

I have contributed and I hope that you will as well.

Lindsey

Functions of Behaviour: Luckily it’s always one of these 4

Info graphic listing the 4 functions of behaviour: attention, escape, access to tangibles and sensory

Read time: 3 minutes

When developing behaviour intervention plans, behaviour analysts investigate the environmental conditions that create opportunities for challenging behaviours to happen.  We look at the functions of behaviour.

In other words, we look at the antecedents (or what is happening before a behaviour) and the consequences (or what is happening after a behaviour) to determine how the behaviour is maintained.

Behaviour analytic researchers have shown that there are 4 main functions of behaviour that perpetuate every behaviour. Sometimes a behaviour will serve one function but more often it can serve many.  Functions of behaviours can also change over time. The 4 functions of behaviours are: access to tangibles, access to social attention, escape or avoidance of undesired situations and automatic reinforcement (sensory).  

The functions of behaviour don’t always equal their topographies

Sometimes it can be easy to confuse the function of a behaviour with it’s topography. Topography is the description of what the behaviour looks like not why it is occurring. For example, to say that someone is chewing is describing the topography of their behaviour not the function.

Once the functions of a behaviour have been discovered the behaviour analyst will develop a replacement behaviour that meets the same need, is easier and is 100% effective. Another important aspect of changing behaviour is to stop reinforcing the target behaviour.

If your child is engaging in an attention seeking behaviour, say calling out in class without raising their hand, the replacement behaviour could potentially be teaching the child to raise their hand to have the teacher call on them. In order for this replacement behaviour to take hold, the teacher has to be committed to always call on the child when they raise their hand and to ignore all instances of calling out. If the teacher continues to reinforce the calling out behaviour, there will be no reason for the child to stop.  

It’s important to remember that reinforcing doesn’t only mean being positive about something.  In applied behaviour analysis, when you reinforce something you’re simply making it more likely to happen again. If a child is engaging in a behaviour that is maintained by escape and you put them in a time out you are reinforcing their escape maintained behaviour, even though being in a time out is not fun.

If a child doesn’t like to eat their vegetables and swears at the dinner table and is sent to their room as a consequence the child’s swearing behaviour is being reinforced because they were allowed to escape or avoid eating their vegetables.  The child has learned that by swearing they will be sent away from the table and will not have to eat their vegetables.

Often the way to change behaviour is to do the opposite of the function while replacing the target behaviour with an alternative.  If the behaviour serves the function of escape or avoidance you would not allow the child to escape or avoid the situation. If the child is gaining attention from the behaviour you would want to limit attention (ignore the behaviour, not the child). If the behaviour allows the child to gain access to something tangible you would want to not allow access.

There are many ethical debates about whether it is okay to intervene in self-stimulatory behaviours (flapping, pacing, jumping etc). I believe that we should not stop someone from doing something simply because of how it looks to others.  Typically developing people engage in self-stimulatory behaviours (humming, playing with their hair, fidgeting) and no one is putting a behaviour interventions in place to stop them. If a sensory maintained behaviour is dangerous (self-injury) or disruptive then there needs to be intervention and a replacement behaviour should be established. 

 Click here to read about the elements of a behaviour intervention plan.

If you would like some help determining the functions of your child’s challenging behaviour contact Lindsey by phone at 1.877.797.0437 or by email.

Effective Parent/Caregiver Coaching

A smiling young couple sitting in their living room with a woman with a Behaviour Therapist having a parent/caregiver coaching session by Side by Side Therapy.
500Let’s work together! Parent coaching is effective to teach you skills to manage your child’s challenging behaviour.

Parent/caregiver coaching is designed to empower parents to address their child’s challenging behaviour. Strategies and protocols are developed on an individual basis to meet the needs of your family while being based in applied behaviour analysis.

This program is a series of coaching sessions between you and a behaviour analyst. Your child may or may not be present for the session. You will be asked to collect data on the target behaviours and this will be analyzed with your therapist.  Our BCBAs are OAP approved Clinical Supervisors and this program meets the Ontario Autism Program eligibility criteria.

Steps in Parent/Caregiver Coaching

  • Assessment

We begin by meeting to discuss your family situation and to develop a list of goals that you would like to achieve through the parent coaching. Goals can be based on present challenges you’re facing or potential challenges that you can foresee. Lindsey will ask you to collect some baseline data to gather more information about what is currently occurring and to help guide the coaching process. We will also agree upon the frequency of parent coaching sessions.

  • Plan Development

Following the assessment we will develop your parent coaching plan. Similar to a behaviour intervention plan for your child, you will receive a written coaching plan that lays out specific targets for intervention, replacement behaviours, data collection and teaching protocols. You will also receive sample data sheets to help guide your data collection.

  • Training and Implementation

We use a Behavioural Skills Training model to teach you how to implement the new skills you’ll be learning. The four steps to this model are: teach, model, rehearse and give feedback. You will have an opportunity to practice the new skills with Lindsey before you implement them with your child.

  • Monitoring and Updating

We will closely follow your implementation of the strategies provided in your coaching plan. We will review the data you collect. We will work with you to troubleshoot any issues that arise during the implementation of the coaching plan.

Sometimes changes to the plan are necessary. We will work with you to optimize the strategies that are included in your coaching plan.

A main goal of this service is to empower you to generalize the skills you learn with a specific challenging behaviour to other challenging behaviours that may arise in the future. 

Comprehensive ABA Therapy in Toronto

Comprehensive programs of ABA therapy in Toronto are designed to address a large number of learning domains. These programs generally focus on both skill building and behaviour reduction. Comprehensive ABA programs are optimal for a child with difficulties in a number of learning domains.

This program meets the Ontario Autism Program eligibility criteria.

Behaviour Therapist showing a child big block letters in a play room during an ABA therapy in Toronto 
session.
Allow us to create your child’s comprehensive ABA program!

Steps in Comprehensive ABA Therapy in Toronto Programs:

  • Assessment

We begin by reviewing any previous documents related to your child’s treatment. We continue with direct observations and discussions with you and your child’s treatment team to identify skill deficits and behaviours targeted for decrease. A complete curriculum assessment will be completed using either the ABLLS-r or the VB MAPP. This curriculum assessment is used to identify your child’s current skill levels and possible teaching targets.

  • Plan Development

Following the assessment we will develop your child’s treatment plan. The number of programs included in your child’s ABA therapy in Toronto program is based on their number of therapy hours per week. Their current level of functioning is also considered. Each ABA program will have a written teaching protocol, prompting procedures, target list, data sheets, revision criteria and mastery criteria.

  • Training and Implementation

We use a Behavioural Skills Training model to teach your team how to implement the ABA program. The four steps to this model are: teach, model, rehearse and give feedback. Your team will have an opportunity to practice each new program before they implement it with your child.

Your team will implement the ABA therapy in Toronto programs with your child and will collect data.

  • Monitoring and Updating

We will closely follow your team’s implementation of the ABA programs. We will review and analyze the data they collect. Working with your team we will troubleshoot any issues that arise during the implementation. Revision and mastery criteria will be outlined within each program so that your team may master or revise targets between supervisions with Lindsey.

We will make changes to the ABA program as necessary. Examples of possible changes are: changes to the schedules of reinforcement, changes to target order or changes to the prompting procedures.

Examples of Areas Targeted in Comprehensive ABA Therapy in Toronto Programs:

  • Adaptive or self-care skills
  • Cognitive functioning
  • Emotional regulation
  • Tolerance Training
  • Language and communication
  • Play and leisure skills
  • Pre-academics and academics
  • Reduction of challenging behaviours
  • Safety Skills

The goal of a comprehensive ABA program is to reduce the gap between your child’s current level of functioning and that of a typically developing peer. This is accomplished by addressing many domains of learning at once.

Contact us to book your 30 minute no-charge consultation today.

Lindsey Malc: Inspired Founder & Clinical Director

Read time: 2 minutes

Hello, my name is Lindsey Malc. I’m the founder and Clinical Director of Side by Side Therapy. In 2013, I became a Board Certified Behaviour Analyst. I have spent my entire career working with children with special needs and their families.  I have extensive experience in clinical as well as community settings. I have worked primarily with autistic children but have considerable experience working with typically developing children with challenging behaviour as well. 

I graduated with a Master of Applied Disability Studies degree from Brock University. I also hold an Honours Bachelor of Social Work degree from Lakehead University. I worked for many years at Zareinu Educational Centre (now known as Kayla’s Children Centre).  At Zareinu, I held many positions, from classroom assistant to Behaviour Analyst.  In my 14 years at Zareinu, I was fortunate to learn from a trans-disciplinary team of therapists who were passionate about helping our students achieve their maximums. Working with Psychologists, Speech-Language Pathologists, Occupational Therapists, Physiotherapists, Social Workers, Special Education Teachers, Early Childhood Educators and Recreational Therapists provided me with a very well rounded understanding of and respect for these vital disciplines. 

How I, Lindsey Malc, can help your child and family

I offer 4 services based on your family’s needs.  

I will help you better understand how you and the environment are impacting and maintaining your child’s behaviour.  Using Applied Behaviour Analysis, I will provide you with alternatives and help guide you to effective ways that you can change your child’s behaviour. Looking at the antecedents, behaviours and consequences will be the starting point for this service.  We will meet weekly or biweekly and will discuss what has happened since our last meeting. I will ask you to take some data because it can be difficult to remember everything and then analyze the information and identify patterns.  

I work with private schools or daycares to identify the function of challenging behaviour and to develop intervention plans that will be effective and easy to implement. Individual programs or class-wide behaviour interventions can be developed.  Realistic data tracking and follow up are provided.  These meetings can happen weekly, bi-weekly or monthly depending on your needs.

If your child with autism or other developmental disability is struggling with a specific skill or skill set, I can develop a targeted intervention to address this need.  I would develop the intervention and teach you or a caregiver how to implement it. We will meet weekly or bi-weekly. Manageable data collection would be an integral part of this intervention with the goal of empowering you to implement the same strategies to address future goals as they arise. 

If you’re looking for a comprehensive ABA Therapy program, to address all areas of your child’s development I can be the Clinical Supervisor for your child’s ABA program.  I qualify as a Clinical Supervisor for the Ontario Autism Program and am listed on the  OAP provider list.  I will complete a curriculum assessment and develop all of the teaching programs and targets for your child’s ABA program. I am happy to work with you to develop your child’s treatment team and to train the staff in all of the behavioural interventions that they will be implementing.  Supervisions would occur either weekly or monthly, depending on the supervision structure of your ABA team.

Professional Services

If you are pursuing BCBA or BCaBA certification, I am also available to supervise all of part of your experience hours.

Photograph of Lindsey Malc, Behaviour Analyst

I would be happy to discuss your ABA Therapy programming needs. Please don’t hesitate to contact me.

Call me: 1-877-797-0437

Email me

Thanks for your time and I look forward to working with you to address your child’s special needs.

Lindsey Malc, BCBA

Contact

Phone: 647-955-5995
Toll Free – 1-877-797-0437
Email: [email protected]

Address: 252 Charlton Ave. Vaughan, Ontario. L4J 6H3

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