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There are many ways to intervene to address challenging behaviour. In Applied Behaviour Analysis the Behaviour Intervetion Plan (BIP) is used. Here are the essential parts of a BIP to look out for when designing one or if one is being implemented with your child.
Operational Definition of Target Behaviour:
This is the definition of the target behaviour. It is important that this definition is accurate and explicit so that anyone who reads the definition would be able to identify the behaviour. The operational definition should include descriptions that are measurable and observable. Everyone needs to be working from the same framework and that begins with a solid operational definition.
Function of Behaviour:
It is important to identify or hypothesize the function of a behaviour before you attempt to change it. Knowing the function will lead you to a function based replacement behaviour. Functional replacements are more effective because they meet the need that the original behaviour as serving. Read more about the functions of behaviour here.
Replacement Behaviour Definition:
Each target behaviour should have a replacement behaviour that will be taught and reinforced. This behaviour also needs a proper definition to ensure that there is consistency across implementers and to ensure that each instance of the behaviour is reinforced.
These are the things in the environment that will be modified to avoid the target behaviour in the first place. Some examples of antecedent strategies are to reduce distraction, provide scheduled or free access to reinforcers or proactively reducing demands.
Skill Building Strategies:
These are the strategies that will be implemented to teach new skills. These strategies can be tools like visual schedules, token boards or the specific steps that will be taught to the child to accomplish a new skill.
These are the strategies that will be employed once the behaviour has happened. These are important so that everyone on the team is aware of how to respond when the target behaviour happens. Consequence strategies are not exclusively negative, they are simply what happens after the target behaviour. Examples of positive consequences are receiving praise for completing an assignment on time, getting a high five for trying a new food or earning extra time on a device.
Data Collection Procedures:
Data is an important part of any applied behaviour analysis intervention. Data is taken to measure change, how quickly that change is happening and to identify when that change is not occurring. Treatment decisions like when to change targets, when to revise interventions or when a skill is mastered should all be made based on the data that has been collected. Data collection should be specific to the situation and able to be gathered with consistency and integrity. Bad data doesn’t help anyone.
Generalization and Maintenance Procedures:
Generalization and maintenance needs to be programmed from the outset of treatment in order for them to occur. It is very unlikely that a skill will be generalized without specific planning. Generalization is when a skill can be demonstrated in a number of settings or environments, with different materials and with different people. Maintenance occurs when a skill is reliably demonstrated with a level of reinforcement that is less than what was used to teach the skill.